Changes the position of replaceable parameters in a batch file.
If Command Extensions are enabled the SHIFT command supports
the /n switch which tells the command to start shifting at the
nth argument, where n may be between zero and eight. For example:
would shift %3 to %2, %4 to %3, etc. and leave %0 and %1 unaffected.C:\WINDOWS>HELP SORT
/M kilobytes] [
/L locale] [
/REC recordbytes] [[
/+n Specifies the character number, n, to
begin each comparison. /+3 indicates that
each comparison should begin at the 3rd
character in each line. Lines with fewer
than n characters collate before other lines.
By default comparisons start at the first
character in each line.
locale Overrides the system default locale with
the specified one. The ""C"" locale yields
the fastest collating sequence and is
currently the only alternative. The sort
is always case insensitive.
kilobytes Specifies amount of main memory to use for
the sort, in kilobytes. The memory size is
always constrained to be a minimum of 160
kilobytes. If the memory size is specified
the exact amount will be used for the sort,
regardless of how much main memory is
The best performance is usually achieved by
not specifying a memory size. By default the
sort will be done with one pass (no temporary
file) if it fits in the default maximum
memory size, otherwise the sort will be done
in two passes (with the partially sorted data
being stored in a temporary file) such that
the amounts of memory used for both the sort
and merge passes are equal. The default
maximum memory size is 90% of available main
memory if both the input and output are
files, and 45% of main memory otherwise.
characters Specifies the maximum number of characters
in a record (default 4096, maximum 65535).
Reverses the sort order; that is,
sorts Z to A, then 9 to 0. [
filename1 Specifies the file to be sorted. If not
specified, the standard input is sorted.
Specifying the input file is faster than
redirecting the same file as standard input.
Specifies the path of the directory to hold
the sort's working storage, in case the data
does not fit in main memory. The default is
to use the system temporary directory.
filename3 Specifies the file where the sorted input is
to be stored. If not specified, the data is
written to the standard output. Specifying
the output file is faster than redirecting
standard output to the same file.C:\WINDOWS>HELP START
Starts a separate window to run a specified program or command.
/SEPARATE | /SHARED] [
/LOW | /NORMAL | /HIGH | /REALTIME | /ABOVENORMAL | /BELOWNORMAL] [
"title" Title to display in window title bar.
path Starting directory
B Start application without creating a new window. The
application has ^C handling ignored. Unless the application
enables ^C processing, ^Break is the only way to interrupt
I The new environment will be the original environment passed
to the cmd.exe and not the current environment.
MIN Start window minimized
MAX Start window maximized
SEPARATE Start 16-bit Windows program in separate memory space
SHARED Start 16-bit Windows program in shared memory space
LOW Start application in the IDLE priority class
NORMAL Start application in the NORMAL priority class
HIGH Start application in the HIGH priority class
REALTIME Start application in the REALTIME priority class
ABOVENORMAL Start application in the ABOVENORMAL priority class
BELOWNORMAL Start application in the BELOWNORMAL priority class
WAIT Start application and wait for it to terminate
If it is an internal cmd command or a batch file then
the command processor is run with the /K switch to cmd.exe.
This means that the window will remain after the command
has been run.
If it is not an internal cmd command or batch file then
it is a program and will run as either a windowed application
or a console application.
parameters These are the parameters passed to the command/program
If Command Extensions are enabled, external command invocation
through the command line or the START command changes as follows:
non-executable files may be invoked through their file association just
by typing the name of the file as a command. (e.g. WORD.DOC would
launch the application associated with the .DOC file extension).
See the ASSOC and FTYPE commands for how to create these
associations from within a command script.
When executing an application that is a 32-bit GUI application, CMD.EXE
does not wait for the application to terminate before returning to
the command prompt. This new behavior does NOT occur if executing
within a command script.
When executing a command line whose first token is the string "CMD "
without an extension or path qualifier, then "CMD" is replaced with
the value of the COMSPEC variable. This prevents picking up CMD.EXE
from the current directory.
When executing a command line whose first token does NOT contain an
extension, then CMD.EXE uses the value of the PATHEXT
environment variable to determine which extensions to look for
and in what order. The default value for the PATHEXT variable
Notice the syntax is the same as the PATH variable, with
semicolons separating the different elements.
When searching for an executable, if there is no match on any extension,
then looks to see if the name matches a directory name. If it does, the
START command launches the Explorer on that path. If done from the
command line, it is the equivalent to doing a CD /D to that path.