Begins localization of environment changes in a batch file. Environment
changes made after SETLOCAL has been issued are local to the batch file.
ENDLOCAL must be issued to restore the previous settings. When the end
of a batch script is reached, an implied ENDLOCAL is executed for any
outstanding SETLOCAL commands issued by that batch script.
If Command Extensions are enabled SETLOCAL changes as follows:
SETLOCAL batch command now accepts optional arguments:
ENABLEEXTENSIONS / DISABLEEXTENSIONS
enable or disable command processor extensions. See
CMD /? for details.
ENABLEDELAYEDEXPANSION / DISABLEDELAYEDEXPANSION
enable or disable delayed environment variable
expansion. See SET /? for details.
These modifications last until the matching ENDLOCAL command,
regardless of their setting prior to the SETLOCAL command.
The SETLOCAL command will set the ERRORLEVEL value if given
an argument. It will be zero if one of the two valid arguments
is given and one otherwise. You can use this in batch scripts
to determine if the extensions are available, using the following
VERIFY OTHER 2>nul
IF ERRORLEVEL 1 echo Unable to enable extensions
This works because on old versions of CMD.EXE, SETLOCAL does NOT
set the ERRORLEVEL value. The VERIFY command with a bad argument
initializes the ERRORLEVEL value to a non-zero value.C:\WINDOWS>HELP SHIFT
Changes the position of replaceable parameters in a batch file.
If Command Extensions are enabled the SHIFT command supports
the /n switch which tells the command to start shifting at the
nth argument, where n may be between zero and eight. For example:
would shift %3 to %2, %4 to %3, etc. and leave %0 and %1 unaffected.C:\WINDOWS>HELP SORT
/M kilobytes] [
/L locale] [
/REC recordbytes] [[
/+n Specifies the character number, n, to
begin each comparison. /+3 indicates that
each comparison should begin at the 3rd
character in each line. Lines with fewer
than n characters collate before other lines.
By default comparisons start at the first
character in each line.
locale Overrides the system default locale with
the specified one. The ""C"" locale yields
the fastest collating sequence and is
currently the only alternative. The sort
is always case insensitive.
kilobytes Specifies amount of main memory to use for
the sort, in kilobytes. The memory size is
always constrained to be a minimum of 160
kilobytes. If the memory size is specified
the exact amount will be used for the sort,
regardless of how much main memory is
The best performance is usually achieved by
not specifying a memory size. By default the
sort will be done with one pass (no temporary
file) if it fits in the default maximum
memory size, otherwise the sort will be done
in two passes (with the partially sorted data
being stored in a temporary file) such that
the amounts of memory used for both the sort
and merge passes are equal. The default
maximum memory size is 90% of available main
memory if both the input and output are
files, and 45% of main memory otherwise.
characters Specifies the maximum number of characters
in a record (default 4096, maximum 65535).
Reverses the sort order; that is,
sorts Z to A, then 9 to 0. [
filename1 Specifies the file to be sorted. If not
specified, the standard input is sorted.
Specifying the input file is faster than
redirecting the same file as standard input.
Specifies the path of the directory to hold
the sort's working storage, in case the data
does not fit in main memory. The default is
to use the system temporary directory.
filename3 Specifies the file where the sorted input is
to be stored. If not specified, the data is
written to the standard output. Specifying
the output file is faster than redirecting
standard output to the same file.